I have wrote a post a long while back on the lodash map method that works more or less the same way as array map only it will work on most objects in general rather than just arrays. That of course is yet another option to be aware of if you are working on a project where lodash is part of the stack. However in this post I will be focusing more so on the native array map prototype method, as well as little tips and tricks that have to do with getting array map to work with objects in general as well as other native javaScriot examples for doing the same thing without array map.
The basic idea of the array map method is to call the map prototype method off of an instance of an array, and then pass a function as the first argument to the method. This method that is passed to array map will then be used to return a new value for every element in the array that it was called off of. The value for each element is passed as an argument for the method that is passed when calling array map, so the current value for each element can be used in the expressions and statements that are used to furnish a new value for each element in the array. Also it is important to note that it is indeed a new array that is returned, and the array that array map is called off of is not mutated in place. Many array prototype methods will mutate in place such as array sort, but this is not the case with array map, and certain other array prototype methods.
If you are still a little confused then maybe it would be best to just start working out a few simple examples. One good starting point would be just having a simple array of number primitives and then use array map to create a new array of powers using the numbers in the array as exponent value for the Math pow method.
So the same thing that can be done with the array map method can be done with the array foreach method, and creating a new array, by dong something like this.
A while loop could also be used of course, or just about any other kind of loop for that matter to reproduce a similar effect to what can be obtained by using array map.
So it is not like the array map method is the only way to go about doing something like this. In fact in many situations I might prefer to go with a while loop because of the greater degree of flexibility that can be achieved. In addition I am not much of a performance nut, but from what I gathered while loops do tend to preform a little faster also for what that is worth. What I try to avoid is getting fixed on just one way to go about doing something, and thinking that this one way of doing it is the only true way of doing it. I see that all the time and I do not care to add to it. It is not to say that these ways of creating a new array based off of values from another array do not have there drawbacks compared to array map still so lets look at some more examples.
So although the array foreach method can be used to do the same thing as array map by just creating a new array with the array bracket syntax and pushing in new values. There is one draw back that comes to mind right away when it comes to chaining. The problem can be resolved by bringing an IIFE into the mix, but I have to admit that it is making the code a little more complex compared to just using array map.
It might make sense to do something like this with a while loop though if I need to create a new array of values from a source array, but not all values in the array maybe. However the use of array forEach is not really such a great choice, because on one hand I can just use array map that is a little more appropriate here, and on the other hand I can use a while loop for better flexibility. However array forEach is is not really setting itself apart from the other two options, so often I use one of those over forEach.
Another taking point about the array map method is that it can often be used as a way to co about copying an array of objects. That is that the array map can be used as a way to create shallow, and event deep clones, or copies if you prefer of arrays. This is because as I have mentioned the array map method will return a new array rather than mutating the array that the method is called off of in place. So right off the bat the array map method will always be a good way to go about making shallow clones of arrays at least. However depending on what I do in the method that I use with array map, I can also create whole new objects when dealing with arrays of objects also so then array map can also be used as a way to create deep clones of objects also.
I will not be getting into detail about copying arrays here as that would be a bit off topic, but I have wrote a post on copying arrays that you might want to check out to read more about how to go about making clones of arrays.
When it comes to breaking down a string into an array of characters the first and for most method that might come to mind is the string split prototype method. By calling string split method the result is an array, at which point I can then use array prototype methods off of the resulting array such as the array join method that can be used to join the elements of an array back into a string.
Split and join are great basic tools, but they do have there limitations such as that I can not preform some kind of custom logic for each element in the resulting array.
After breaking a string down into an array with the string split method I am now dealing with an array rather than a string, so I can now use and array prototype method like array map. With array map I can now do whatever I want inside the body of the function that I use with array map such as using each letter in the source array to create a number using parseInt.
Another prototype method that is worth mentioning in this section is the Function call method, by using that it is possible to drop the use of the string split method. The reason why that is is that they way that a string is structured it is all ready an array to begin with in a way in the sense that it can be worked with by way of numbered key values and a length property. The only problem really is that a String is of the String prototype rather than that of the Array prototype. So the function call method can be used to set the value of this for map to that of a string and then array map will work directly with a string rather than an array because a string is an example of an array like object.