if statements can have brackets or not, and can also be used with an option else block as well.
If a function that is being made that is using the return keyword to return a result when called then else does not need to be used. The reason why is that return will stop any further execution of any additional code, so it can be used as a way to break out of a function. This differs from blocks of code where I might only want some code to run if and only if a condition is not met.
Because the conditional operator is a kind of expression it can be used in conjunction with if statements.